4/01/2004

Sengaku-ji

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. 47 Ronin and the Chushingura 忠臣蔵  .
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Sengaku-ji and the 47 Ronin (Chushingura)
泉岳寺と47浪人 / 忠臣蔵 

Sengakuji (Senkaku-Ji) is a small temple in Minato-ku, Tokyo, famous for its graveyard where the "47 Ronin" (also known as Akorooshi, the "masterless samurai from Ako") are buried.

The story of the 47 loyal roonin (see below) remains one of the most popular historical stories in Japan, and many people visit the temple in order to pay respect to the Akoroshi by burning incense sticks (senko) in the graveyard. A small museum commemorating the 47 ronin can also be found at Sengakuji.

December 14 is the anniversary of the 47 ronin's avenge. A festival is held annually at Sengakuji to commemorate the event, attracting thousands of visitors. The small graveyard becomes very crowded and smoky during the festival, and many typical festival foods such as Okonomiyaki and Takoyaki can be enjoyed at temporarily constructed food stands.



The Story of the 47 Ronin
In March 1701, lord Asano Takuminokami of Ako (today's Hyogo Prefecture) attacked lord Kira Kozukenosuke at Edo castle. Asano lost patience after repeatedly being provoked and treated arrogantly by Kira, but failed to kill him in the attack. On the same day, Asano was sentenced to commit seppuku (ritual suicide), while Kira was not punished at all, despite the contemporary custom of punishing both parties in similar incidents. In addition, the whole Asano family was removed from power, leaving Asano's samurai without a job and a strong will to avenge their unfairly punished master.

For over one and a half year, the samurai prepared the avenge under difficult circumstances. On December 14, 1702, the remaining group of 47 ronin under their leader Oishi Kuranosuke finally succeeded to avenge their master by killing lord Kita in his mansion. Afterwards, they carried Kira's head to Sengakuji, and were later sentenced to commit seppuku.

The story of the 47 ronin became highly popular as a kabuki play during the Edo Period, and remains very popular today in Japan where loyalty, endurance and will power are some of the most respected characteristics.
http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e3000.html

Read the story of the Kabuki play "Chushingura"
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Darumasan-Japan/message/618


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"Sengakuji temple in the rain"
Asano Takeji (1900 - 1999) 浅野竹二


- Reference : www.sarugallery.com


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On this LINK you find more material to the Ronin-Story:
http://www.clas.ufl.edu/mems/virtueveng.htm


And here is a great picture of Dolls
http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/jshoaf/Jdolls/chushingura.html

It has a label in English reading "Wakayama, Island of Honshu, Oct. 11945"--presumably it was owned by a member of the occupying militaryright after the war. It would be interesting to know what it meant tohim and to the dollmaker who made it.
Judy (McNamara) Shoaf
... groups.yahoo.com/group/Darumasan-Japan/

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Doll of Oishi Kuranosuke on a float in a parade at Mikuni.



山車人形保存会:大石内蔵助

More Warrior Dolls on this link:
http://www.kuni-net.com/event/020520.html

Here is Oishi on the float on the right
Festival in Esashi, Hokkaido.
http://www.hokkaido-esashi.jp/ubagami/dashi05.htm#homare

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Statue of Oishi Kuranosuke in the Azalea Park in Kasama



夏の新緑,秋の紅葉,数百種の植物が繁茂する佐白山(182m)はまさに自然の宝庫です。その西のふもとにあるのが,笠間藩の下屋敷跡に作られた佐白山麓公園。園内には,「忠臣蔵」で有名な大石内蔵助像があります。春になると桜の大樹が一面に美しい花を咲かせます。また,山麓公園を起点にして佐白山を巡るハイキングコースもおすすめです。
http://www.nakaminato-ta.com/hana-kasama-1.htm

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Litoghraphs of the Story of the Kabuki Story

Scenes From the Chiushingura and the Story of Forty-Seven Ronin,
Collotyes by Kazumasa Ogawa



Each plate is preceded by descriptive text explaining the image in the plate and how it relates to the story of the Forty-Seven Ronin. The book recreates a very famous incident in 1701 in which Asano Naganori (Lord Asano) was required to commit harakiri. His forty-seven samurai bodyguards, then reduced to the status of ronin, or masterless samurai, took revenge two years later by assassinating Lord Kira Yoshinaka, the individual responsible for Naganori's death. The ronin were then required by the Shogun to commit harakiri and buried with their master. The 17 collotype plates depict key events and settings in the story. Images involving actual characters are reenacted for the photographs.
.. http://www.baxleystamps.com/litho/
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- quote -
Senkakuji - The Temple of the 47 Samurai



Not far from Shinagawa, on a low bluff that overlooks the bay, is one of Edo's most famous, and most romanticized landmarks -- the grave of the forty-seven samurai. The grave site is located at Senkakuji, a small temple just a short distance from the Tokaido, as it approaches the center of Edo. Most people in Japan know the story of the forty-seven samurai almost by heart. It has become a very popular romance, and dozens of stories and plays have been written about it, each one more elaborate and dramatic. In fact, the most famous kabuki play ever written -- The Chushingura -- is also based on the story of the 47 samurai.

The story begins in Edo Castle in the year 1701, during the reign of the shogun Tsunayoshi. A certain samurai from northern Japan, named Asano, was assigned to serve as a guard at the Shogun's court. Asano was a very noble warrior, who had been well schooled in Bushido -- the proper conduct of a warrior. However, since he was from a rural province, he was not so familiar with the rules of high society, and the polite behavior of courtiers.

While Asano was serving in the Shogun's guard, another samurai from a province near Kyoto, named Kira, visited Edo castle. Because Kira was related to the Emperor and had spent most of his life in the imperial court in Kyoto, he was very proud and conceited. He considered people from Edo and other parts of eastern Japan to be less civilized and less refined. When he met the soft-spoken and humble Asano, his first impression was that Asano was some sort of dumb hick from the countryside. He spoke to Asano in a very rude way. But instead of getting angry, Asano was extremely polite, ignored the insult, and continued to show his visitor around the castle.

Kira thought that Asano had failed to respond to the insult because he was a coward. But actually, the reason why Asano did not show his anger was because he was such a well-trained samurai. According to the code of Bushido, a good warrior never loses his temper. He knows better than to fight with someone when it is not necessary. Asano continued to ignore the insults, and when he didn't get a response, Kira became ever more insulting , trying to provoke Asano.

However, because Asano was not very familiar with court ettiquette, he made a minor mistake in courtesy. As they were going down the steps to the castle, Asano went ahead of Kira (who was of a higher rank). This was a breach of court ettiquette, and Kira used it as an excuse to provoke Asano further. Kira deliberately tripped on the steps, and let his sandal fall to the ground. He shouted angrily that Asano was a barbarian who was so rude he went down the stairs ahead of a guest. "Its your fault I dropped my sandal", he shouted. "Pick it up and put it back on my foot."

Now, in Japanese society, touching another person's foot is a very demeaning thing. Only a servant would stoop to tying another person's sandal. It would be completely inappropriate for any person of dignity -- particularly a warrior. Asano could no longer ignore the insult, for to do so would be a sign that he had no honor. It is one thing to ignore insults. But to touch another person's feet would have ruined his reputation as a warrior. Left with no choice, Asano drew his sword and attacked Kira. Though Kira was attended by a dozen of his own retainers, they were only barely able to defend their master. Asano managed to wound Kira slightly, but his retainers intervened, and Kira managed to escape with his life. Asano was a magnificent swordsman, and Kira's retainers had to flee. They were lucky just to escape without serious injury.

Although Kira easily won the fight, it is forbidden for anyone to draw their sword inside the Shogun's castle. Kira and his retainers had all seen the fight, and so had a lot of other witnesses. Kira complained to Shogun Tsunayoshi, accusing Asano of breaking the law. The Shogun realised that Kira was the one who had provoked Asano. However, a law is a law, and he had no choice but to punish Asano. He ordered Asano to commit suicide by seppuku . Since Asano was a very noble warrior, he did exactly as he was told.

Unfortunately for Asano's 47 retainers, their master did not have an heir. This meant that they no longer had any lord to serve; they were all now unemployed, and could not work as guards for the Shogun as they had in the past. Not only was their master disgraced, but their own lives were ruined. Most people expected them to try to get revenge against Kira, but Kira also expected this, so he increased the guards around his home to ensure that he could not be attacked.

The 47 samurai knew they could never hope to overcome all the guards and take their revenge on Kira, so they hatched a plan. All of them left Edo, going to different towns around the country. Kira's spies continued to keep an eye on them, but instead of trying to find work and practicing their martial arts, the 47 samurai became drunkards and beggars, sleeping in the streets and forgetting all about protecting their honor. The leader of the group, Oishi, became an object of ridicule. Though his wife begged him to show some self-respect, he ordered her to leave and take their children with her. To complete his disgrace, Oishi moved in with a prostitute.

Everyone was convinced that the 47 samurai were nothing but bums and drunks. The people of the town treated them as fools, and made them the butt of practical jokes and ridicule. Eventually, Kira stopped worrying that they might attack him. Although they had to live a life of disgrace for over a year, this was all part of their plan. The 47 samurai ignored the people who taunted them and laughed at them, because they were intent on getting their revenge.

Finally, late the following winter, they were ready. The 47 samurai gathered together just outside the home of Kira on a snowy evening, December 15, 1702, and prepared to strike. Kira had been fooled into complacency. He believed that the 47 samurai were no longer a danger, so he no longer expected them to attack. That evening, only a few guards were on duty. The 47 samurai stormed into the manor and swiftly killed all the guards.

Kira tried to run away, but he was surrounded. After searching the entire manor, Oishi caught him hiding in a rice storehouse. Oishi offered to let Kira commit seppuku, which is the most noble way for a warrior to die. But instead of accepting his fate like a man, Kira begged for mercy. Oishi was so disgusted by the coward that he simply chopped off his head and tossed it into a bucket.

The 47 samurai then took Kira's head to the grave of their master, which was located at Senkaku-ji Temple, near Shinagawa. After they had placed their enemy's head on Asano's grave and said prayers to their departed master, all 47 of them committed suicide, so they could join their master in death. The priests at Senkakuji buried all 47 next to their master, and now the grave has become a famous site for pilgrims and sightseers. People come from all over the country to pay their respects to these loyal retainers, who were willing to suffer insults and poverty in order to revenge their master
- source : Edomatsu -


. 47 Ronin and the Chushingura 忠臣蔵 - Edo .

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Many pictures of the Temple Sengakuji 泉岳寺の写真
http://www.flyingczechman.org/gallery/sengakuji/


Japanese Links
泉岳寺は慶長17年(1612)徳川家康が外神田の地に創立した寺である。 寛永の大火により焼失、毛利・浅野・朽木・水野・水谷の五大名の尽力により 現在の高輪の地に移転しました。寺号「泉岳寺」は、徳川に因み「源の泉、 海岳に溢るる」の意から付けられたそうです。
http://www2s.biglobe.ne.jp/~ra_mo/rekisi/rekisi.htm


Pictures of the Graves of the 47 Ronin
http://www2s.biglobe.ne.jp/~ra_mo/rekisi/bosho.htm
http://japan.chez.tiscali.fr/Tokyo/Japan/Sengakuji.htm

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Tales of Old Japan
by Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford, Lord Redesdale

THE FORTY-SEVEN RÔNINS
. Tales of Old Japan .
The Project Gutenberg eBook


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Ooishi manjuu 大石饅頭 Oishi manju rice cakes
made from wasanbon sugar
Sold in the tea shops near the temple.


. WASHOKU
manjuu まんじゅう (饅頭) steamed buns




It was the novelist Ozaki Shirô ― a native of Kira-chô ― who first proposed in 1949 that the incident had its origins in a salt rivalry between Asano, whose Akô salt was of superior quality, and Kira, who had easier access to the Edo market.
. Salt from Ako, called Chushingura .
赤穂塩 忠臣蔵


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. Regional Horse Toys from Japan .




Kira no Akauma 吉良の赤馬
The Red Horse of Kira Kozukenosuke







In the town of Nishio 西尾市 in Aichi prefecture, Kira Kozukenosuke 吉良上野介 is a hero.
He used to sit on a red horse and ride around in his domain, to see that the water drainage work was done properly and the farmers be safe from flooding.
This legend later became a simple wooden toy for children, nowadays a plastic version as a strap.




赤馬まつり. 吉良の赤馬牧場
There is even a festival at the Kira Akauma Ranch.

In May 2011 it was held as a charity event for the victims of Tohoku.

. Japan after the BIG earthquake March 11, 2011 .


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.......... H A I K U and KIGO


Ooishi Ki 大石忌 (おおいしき)
Memorial Day for Oishi Kuranosuke


February 4

Gishi-Sai 義士祭 , gishi no hi 義士の日
Memorial Ceremony for the 47 Samurai


kigo for spring


Reference: Gishisai


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Gishi Kai 義士会 (ぎしかい)
Memorial Meeting for the 47 Samurai
Gishi uchi-iri no hi 義士討入の日(ぎしうちいりのひ)
Day of the 47 Samurai beginning their revenge

kigo for mid-winter



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義士の日の 傘を並べて 墓のまへ
gishi no hi no kasa o narabete haka no mae

memorial day of the 47 samurai -
all the umbrellas in line
in front of the graves


© azusa-kei
(Tr. Gabi Greve)

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それまではただの寺なり泉岳寺
sore made wa tada no tera nari sengakuji

until then
it was just another temple -
Sengaku-Ji



. senryu, senryū 川柳 Senryu in Edo .


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. Welcome to Edo 江戸 ! .


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3 comments:

Gabi Greve - Edopedia said...

susuharai -
On the 13th day of the last lunar month, everybody had to clean their homes . .

By the way, on the next day in 1702, the 47 samurai attacked the home of Kira Kozukenosuke and killed him.
Two of the spies to check on his whereabouts on this day was clad as a bamboo vendors.

Edo and the bamboo vendors
.

Gabi Greve said...


THE FORTY-SEVEN RÔNINS
told by
. Algernon Bertram Freeman-Mitford アルジャーノン・フリーマン=ミットフォード .
Tales of Old Japan (1871)
.
http://edoflourishing.blogspot.jp/2014/10/ronin-chushingura.html

Gabi Greve said...

Chushingura Bakemono Manga

まさに江戸時代のマンガ!浮世絵
「化物忠臣蔵」がユーモアあり毒ありでオモシロ!
by Utagawa Kuniyoshi 歌川国芳
.
here
http://mag.japaaan.com/archives/27171?ref_from=related
.