Xavier, Saint Francis Xavier


Saint Francis Xavier

CLICK for more photos

Saint Francis Xavier, born Francisco de Jaso y Azpilicueta (7 April 1506, Javier, Navarre – 3 December 1552, Shangchuan Island, China) was a pioneering Roman Catholic missionary born in the Kingdom of Navarre (Spain) and co-founder of the Society of Jesus.
He was influential in the spreading and upkeep of Catholicism most notably in India, but also ventured into Japan, Borneo, the Moluccas, and other areas which had thus far not been visited by Christian missionaries.

Francis had initially interacted most with the lower classes (later though, in Japan, Francis changed tack by paying tribute to the Emperor and seeking an audience with him).

Francis Xavier reached Japan on 27 July 1549, with Anjiro and three other Jesuits, but it was not until 15 August that he went ashore at Kagoshima, the principal port of the province of Satsuma on the island of Kyūshū.
© More in the WIKIPEDIA !

フランシスコ・ザビエル Furanshisuko Zabieru


Xavier Papermachee Dolls, in Daruma fashion
from Kagoshima 鹿児島 ザビエル書院

. Karematsu Jinja 枯松神社 and hidden Christians .


kigo for early winter

Day of Saint Xavier
Sei Sabieru no hi 聖ザビエルの日 (せいざびえるのひ)

December 3

Sei Furanshisuko Sabieru shi sai no iwaibi

Sabieru no iwaibi ザビエルの祝日(ざびえるのいわいび)

Sei Sabieru sai 聖ザビエル祭(せいざびえるさい)
Festival for Saint Xavier

Christian Celebrations in Winter KIGO


CLICK for more photos

Sabieru no kane nariwataru seigogatsu

the bell of Xavier
rings far and wide -
Holy Month of May

Hotta Seikoo 堀田清江

This bell is located at the Xavier commemoration church
Yuda Onsen, Yamaguchi

Reference : ザビエルの鐘


Goa in India is known for the grave of Francis Xavier, the first Christian missionary to Japan.

On 11 December, 1553, Xavier's body was shipped to Goa.
The body is now in the Basilica of Bom Jesus in Goa, where it was placed in a glass container encased in a silver casket on December 2, 1637.

monsoon ...
the grave of Xavier
in the old church

Gabi Greve

. Carnival in Goa, India


Japanese wine

Legend has it that grape-growing in Japan began in 718 CE, in Katsunuma, Yamanashi Prefecture. Wine may have been made from local grapes there, but the first documented case of wine consumption in Japan was in the 16th century, when the Jesuit missionaries arrived from Portugal.

Saint Francis Xavier brought wines as gifts for the feudal lords of Kyushu, and other missionaries continued the practice, resulting in locals acquiring taste for wine and importing it regularly.

More is here

Wine (budooshu 葡萄酒)


As far as can be determined from Japanese historical record, shōchū appears to have been made since at least as far back as the 16th century.
For example, when the missionary Francis Xavier visited Kagoshima Prefecture in 1549, he recorded that
"the Japanese drink arak made from rice [...] but I have not seen a single drunkard. That is because once inebriated they immediately lie down and go to sleep."

shoochuu 焼酎 (しょうちゅう)
shochu, strong distilled liquor, Schnaps


- quote -
Some historical background for foreigners in Japan. In addition to the first arrival of the Portuguese in 1543 at Tanegashima Island (south of Kyushu), the following important events took place:

• In 1600, the Dutch merchant ship arrived navigated by William Adams, the English navigator; the ship's name is "Liefde " ("Charity" or "Love"). In the following year, 1601, William Adams and Jan Joosten received audience with Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu at Edo.
• In 1610, the Spaniards received permission to trade with Japan.
• In 1616, the Edo shogunate selects Hirado and Nagasaki as the ports of calls for the European trade ships.
• In 1618, the English opened their commercial outpost in Hirado.
• In 1624; the Spaniards were expelled from Japan.
• In 1639, the Portuguese were forbidden to live and arrive in Japan.

In addition, so as to cope with increased presence of the Europeans, the Edo shogunate established bans for arrival of these trading ships as well as the Japanese traveling abroad (in Indochina) except the official trade ships. These bans are called "sakoku 鎖国," meaning "closing of Japan from the outside world" (with the exception of the Dutch and the Chinese):
• In 1633, 1st Sakoku order, banning the Japanese traveling overseas except for official trade ships and return of the Japanese living outside of Japan (such as in present Vietnam and the Philippines).
• In 1635, 2nd Sakoku order, forbidding arrivals of foreign ships at other ports than Nagasaki, and Japanese travel abroad and return to Japan for those who live outside of Japan.
• In 1639, 3rd Sakoku order, the Portuguese were forbidden to arrive to or live in Japan.
• In 1645, the Dutch trading post (オランダ商館) moved from Hirado to the Dejima (出島) in Nagasaki.

Additional events regarding the Dutch East India Company (with the acronym VOC) and Qing Chinese ships:
• In 1655, the Dutch given a free-trade status.
• In 1685, establishment of textile trade limitation for the Dutch.
• In 1720, a ban on import of Western books translated into Chinese except for Christian items.
• In 1746, annual trade ship limitations, 10 Qing Chinese ships and 2 Dutch ships per annum.
• In 1780, the head of the Dutch East India Company (Chiching, the spelling of his name is uncertain here) received an audience with the 10th Tokugawa Shogun, Iechika, in Edo. (See the attached view of three Dutch merchants visiting a tea house in Kyoto, which I take took place on their way to Edo for this audience; this was first published in 1780 and reissued in 1786: < http://www.nichibun.ac.jp/meisyo…/kyotosyui/…/km_01_185.html >). For the Dutch-Japanese relations, see (with Japanese option): < http://japan.nlembassy.org/yo…/dutch-japanese-relations.html >; from Columbia University, KEY POINTS IN DEVELOPMENTS IN EAST ASIA >> 1450-1750: < http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/main_pop/kpct/kp_tokugawa.htm >.
• From the late 18th to early 19th century, frequent arrivals of the Russians to Hokkaido.
• In 1803, an American ship arrives in Nagasaki for asking for trade--this request was refused.
• In 1817, an English ship arrived in Uraga (not far from Edo)
• In 1823, the German medical doctor Siebold arrives in Japan as the attending physician for the Dutch in Nagasaki. (In 1828, the Siebold Incident, involving the Japanese astronomer Takahashi Keiho 高橋景保 presents a Japanese map to Siebold; the Japanese astronomer jailed and Siebold leaves Japan in 1829.)
• In 1837, the Morrison Incident, an American ship arrives in Uraga accompanying rescued Japanese, the ship repelled.
• In 1844, the Dutch king presents the Edo shogunate a national advise asking Japan to open up the country to the outside world; the Japanese refused in the following year.
• In 1848, an American whaling ship arrives in Matsumae as result of being drift, and its crew being transferred to Nagasaki. In the following year, America arrived in Nagasaki to pick up the crew of this drift whaling ship. The same year, the English fleet arrives in Uraga.
• In 1852, a Russian ship arrives in Shimoda.
• 1853, the American East India Fleet Commander, Commodore Matthew Perry, arrives in Uraga with four iron steam ships demanding a friendship treaty with Japan. In the following year, 1854, the treaty was signed in Kanagawa as Japan-America Friendship Treaty 日米和親条約 (also referred to as 神奈川条約 the Kanagawa Treaty).
• In 1855, Japan concludes similar friendship treaties with the French and the Dutch.
• In 1856, the first American consult Townsend Harris (1804-1878) arrives in Shimoda.

And the rest results in the Japanese internal struggle to deal with how to treat the Westerners but also to rid of the shogun in Edo in favor of the emperor in Kyoto, with four main factions struggling against each other--1) the pro-shogun, pro-opening up Japan to the outside, 2) the pro-shogun, anti-opening up Japan, 3) pro-emperor and pro-opening up Japan, and 4) pro-emperor and anti-opening up Japan. These conflicts took place from the 1850s to 1868, when the Meiji era opened after the 15th Tokugawa shogun "returned" the power to administer Japan to the emperor.
- source : - Yoshio on facebook -

. Nagasakiya 長崎屋 "Dutch Inn" in Edo .
where a lot of information was exchanged.

- quote -
Sakoku (鎖国, "closed country" but commonly translated as "period of national isolation")
was the foreign relations policy of Japan under which severe restrictions were placed on the entry of foreigners to Japan and Japanese people were forbidden to leave the country without special permission, on penalty of death if they returned. The policy was enacted by the Tokugawa shogunate under Tokugawa Iemitsu through a number of edicts and policies from 1633–39 and largely remained officially in effect until 1866, although the arrival of the American Black Ships of Commodore Matthew Perry, which started the opening of Japan to Western trade, eroded its enforcement severely.
- - - More in the WIKIPEDIA !


. kakure kirishitan, kurisuchan
隠れキリシタン, 隠れクリスチャン .

the "hidden Christians"

. Stepping on a Christian image
(Fumi-e, ebumi 踏絵 絵踏)

#christiansinjapan #xavier #sakoku

No comments: